一條狗的使命

安樂死是醫學的失敗,還是覺醒?不同的國家有不同的定義

    假如疾病無法治愈,活著只剩下折磨,你是選擇茍且地活著還是選擇體面地死去?1516年英國空想主義者Thomas More在《烏托邦》[1]一書中就給人們提供了一種很好的選擇——安樂死!Thomas More在這個理想的社會中,一旦人們得了不治之癥,人們就有選擇安樂死的權利。為了防止出現被安樂死的情況,烏托邦的最高權力者還頒布了一項法規,即沒有自己的允許,不許任何人對別人實施安樂死[2]。盡管,這是一種虛擬的社會狀態,但也反映了一定的社會現實:有人渴望安樂死!雖然,現在安樂死已經在有些國家取得了合法化,但從歷史的角度來看,安樂死贏來得十分不易!每天都有安樂死相傳,古時候的斯巴達人為了擁有健康的體魄,通常會把那些患有先天性疾病的孩子處死;古羅馬人為了免受疾病帶來的無盡折磨,也會選擇服用鐵杉來結束自己的生命……也許現在看來,這些做法確實有些難以置信,但事實上那個時候這種形式的“安樂死”幾乎每天都在上演著[3,4]。據說蘇格拉底就是服用鐵杉而死的據說,這主要是跟當時的社會生產力低下有關。當生產力資料不足以養活所有的社會成員時,這種安樂死的習俗確實從最大程度上減輕了社會負擔。但后來隨著社會生產力水平的提高和宗教的出現,社會上也漸漸地出現了反對安樂死的聲音,在這場長達幾個世紀的安樂死爭論賽中,還好少數人取得了勝利。這是一場沒有硝煙的“戰爭”近現代社會中,人們對于安樂死的爭議大概是從17世紀開始的。17世紀,英國哲學家Francis Bacon提出了一種觀點[5],他認為醫生的職責不應該僅僅只是幫助病人看病,而且還應該要盡可能地減輕病人的疼痛。Francis Bacon雖然從字面上看,Bacon并沒有明確地提倡安樂死這一行為,但Bacon當時引用的論據里大部分都是用來證明安樂死的做法是正確的[6]。盡管,Bacon的觀點引發了一小部分知識分子的討論,但并沒有引起醫療行業的關注,也沒有引起大家的共鳴。而1870年隨著一篇演講稿的橫空出世,這一切都發生了根本性的變化[7]!這篇演講稿來自于一位不起眼的醫生,他叫Samuel D. Williams。在這次演講中,Williams提出了一個很大膽的新穎觀點,即可以用麻醉藥物(麻醉劑在19世紀得到了很大的推廣)來支持安樂死!雖然Williams的觀點遭到了醫生和大量雜志社的反對,但在律政界卻得到了異常支持。從醫生的角度來說,這其中很大一部分原因是因為他們職業的特殊性,實施安樂死不僅容易抹黑醫生的形象,還會給醫生穿上劊子手的“長袍”。所以從醫生的角度講,沒有人愿意支持安樂死。不過律政界卻呼吁,只有病人自己才有處決自己生死的權利,其他人都沒有干涉的權利,包括醫生。另外,1899年的時候,美國議員Simeon Baldwin也曾在一次總統演講中,為安樂死辯護。他聲稱,許多醫生為了贏得別人對他們的尊敬,不惜增加病人的痛苦來延長病人的生命,這對病人來說是悲慘的[8],所以醫生不應該剝奪病人想安樂死的權利。盡管律師們的呼吁為人們爭取安樂死的權利贏得了一部分人的掌聲,但實際上并沒有什么實質上的進展。直到1905年一個女孩的出現,安樂死才算在合法性上邁出了第一步。這個女孩的名字叫Anna Hill,Hill的母親是一位癌癥患者,多年來疾病的疼痛早已使她有了安樂死的想法,可是,這在當時,安樂死還并不算是一種合法性的法規。所以,為了讓母親盡快從痛苦中得到解脫,Hill向美國俄亥俄州提出了一項安樂死合法性的申請[9,10]。慶幸的是,在Hill的努力下,俄亥俄州的議員舉行了一次會議投票,而會議的主要內容是關于如何給絕癥患者使用藥物管理的一項法案。遺憾的是,這項法案最終以23票對79票得到了俄亥俄州議會的否決。這意味著關于安樂死合法性的第一次申請失敗了!難道安樂死就這樣被“打垮”了嗎?不,它沒有。“像循環出現的小數”盡管在這項法案失敗以后,英美兩國對安樂死的討論減少了,但就像一位社論作者所寫的,“安樂死這個話題永遠不會消亡,它更像是一個循環出現的小數”,到了20世紀30年代的時候,關于安樂死的爭論又重新開始了。而這一次,在英國比在美國更加激烈!C. Killick Millard醫生是早期提倡強制接種疫苗和計劃生育的人,他在英國衛生官員協會發表總統演講的時候提出了一項安樂死合法化的議案[11,12]。不僅如此,Millard還發表了一篇學術演講,回顧了一下人們對于安樂死的歷史態度。這一次,Millard的努力沒有白費。因為Millard的觀點直接促使英國成立了第一個自愿安樂死合法化委員會(3年后,在美國也成立了同樣的委員會),這一民間組織的宗旨就在于使安樂死合法化。雖然,之后英、美的安樂死協會還曾起草過能妥善防止發生謀殺、欺騙、操之過急的提案,但他們的提案都被國家和地方立法機構一一否決了。好在,人們對于安樂死權利的爭取并沒有因此而停止,因為1969年,在支持者的努力下,英國議會終于通過了英國歷史上第一個使安樂死合法化的法案。或許是受到英國安樂死合法化法案的影響吧,20世紀80年代初的時候,安樂死這一話題不僅成為了許多國家廣泛的學術爭論性話題,而且還成為了公眾爭論的焦點,特別是在荷蘭。1987年,在荷蘭支持者的努力下,荷蘭也通過了一項法律條文,即允許醫生為患有絕癥的病人實行安樂死。雖然,目前世界上仍有許多國家沒有通過安樂死,但關于安樂死的爭論卻始終沒有停止。但說實話,相比于幾個世紀前,現在的人們在安樂死的論點上并沒有什么新的亮點。撇開風格和措辭不談,總結出來人們支持安樂死的論據也就那么幾點:從天賦人權的角度上講,安樂死應該是一項與生俱來的人權,沒有人可以替自己做主,人們有權自己選擇安樂死;再者,安樂死主要是幫助病人結束疼痛的,所以總的來說是利大于弊的;另外,主動安樂死與放棄維持生命的醫療干預之間也沒有什么實質性的區別[13]。而不支持安樂死的人也大都是從兩個層面來講的。一是病人的層面,合法化的安樂死可能會讓有心人鉆了空子,讓許多不想安樂死的人被安樂死,另外,這也會給病人帶來巨大的壓力;二主要是從醫學的層面上講,安樂死的合法化很有可能會破壞病人對醫生的信任,而一旦改變了醫生的職責觀念(通過安樂死合法化),公眾對醫療行業的信心也必將會喪失,再說,醫學也不是一門精確的科學,既使是現在無法治愈的疾病也不能打包票將來不能治愈。雖然,關于安樂死的爭論仍在繼續,但不可否認的是,已經有越來越多的人愿意選擇安樂死了,當然了,這可不意味著實施安樂死是一件簡單的事情。事實上,不管是哪個國家的安樂死法律,病人都得一步步地按照申請的程序走(據說這個程序還相當復雜)。一般來說,安樂死的定義在不同的國家有著不同的定義,在中國,安樂死是指患不治之癥的病人在垂危狀態下,由于精神和軀體的極端痛苦,在病人和其親友的要求下,經醫生認可,用人道方法使病人在無痛苦狀態中結束生命過程。雖然,在中國想通過立法的手段使安樂死得到合法化還需要很長的路要走,又或許在很長一段時間內根本不可能。但Dr.Why真心希望,將來有這一天,至少可以體面地來,也可以體面地走!既然不能自由地選擇生,那么自由地選擇死可好?Dr.Why還想說對于在痛苦中掙扎的人,減少痛苦,也許是一種好的選擇~參考文獻:1.Fye W B . Active euthanasia: an historical survey of its conceptual origins and introduction into medical thought.[J]. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1978, 52(4):492-5022.Frug G E. The City as a Legal Concept[M]// Cities of the Mind. 1984.3.Amundsen D W. The Physician's Obligation to Prolong Life: A Medical Duty without Classical Roots[J]. Hastings Center Report, 1978, 8(4):23-30.4.Gourevitch D. Suicide among the sick in classical antiquity[J]. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1969, 43(6):501.5.Crossman J, Doshi V. When Not Knowing, is a Virtue: A Business Ethics Perspective[J]. Journal of Business Ethics, 2015, 131(1):1-8.6. Tibbetts P. Neurobiology and the Homunculus Thesis[J]. Man & World, 1995, 28(4):401-413.7.Williams J R, Lowy F, Sawyer D M. Canadian physicians and euthanasia: 3. Arguments and beliefs[J]. Cmaj, 1993, 148(10):1699-1702.8.Bach A. Medico-legal congress[J]. Med Leg J, 1896, 14: 103-6.9.Cohen-Almagor R, Hartman M G. The Oregon Death with Dignity Act: review and proposals for improvement.[J]. Journal of Legislation, 2001, 27(2):269-298.10.Tolentino A S. Is there a right to die?, A study of the law of euthanasia.[J]. Philipp Law J, 1974, 49(4):444-461.11.Millard C K. The legalisation of voluntary euthanasia[J]. Public Health, 1931, 45(1):39-47.12.Gamble V N. “There Wasn't a Lot of Comforts in Those Days:” African Americans, Public Health, and the 1918 Influenza Epidemic[J]. Public Health Reports, 2010, 125(3):114-122.13.Emanuel, Ezekiel J . The History of Euthanasia Debates in the United States and Britain[J]. Annals of Internal Medicine, 1994, 121(10):793.和Dr.Why一起,發現醫學之美本文作者 |藝兮生命的盡頭,能否給我一份尊嚴?

jia ru ji bing wu fa zhi yu, huo zhe zhi sheng xia zhe mo, ni shi xuan ze gou qie di huo zhe hai shi xuan ze ti mian di si qu? 1516 nian ying guo kong xiang zhu yi zhe Thomas More zai wu tuo bang 1 yi shu zhong jiu gei ren men ti gong le yi zhong hen hao de xuan ze an le si! Thomas More zai zhe ge li xiang de she hui zhong, yi dan ren men de le bu zhi zhi zheng, ren men jiu you xuan ze an le si de quan li. wei le fang zhi chu xian bei an le si de qing kuang, wu tuo bang de zui gao quan li zhe hai ban bu le yi xiang fa gui, ji mei you zi ji de yun xu, bu xu ren he ren dui bie ren shi shi an le si 2. jin guan, zhe shi yi zhong xu ni de she hui zhuang tai, dan ye fan ying le yi ding de she hui xian shi: you ren ke wang an le si! sui ran, xian zai an le si yi jing zai you xie guo jia qu de le he fa hua, dan cong li shi de jiao du lai kan, an le si ying lai de shi fen bu yi! mei tian du you an le si xiang chuan, gu shi hou de si ba da ren wei le yong you jian kang de ti po, tong chang hui ba nei xie huan you xian tian xing ji bing de hai zi chu si gu luo ma ren wei le mian shou ji bing dai lai de wu jin zhe mo, ye hui xuan ze fu yong tie shan lai jie shu zi ji de sheng ming ye xu xian zai kan lai, zhei xie zuo fa que shi you xie nan yi zhi xin, dan shi shi shang na ge shi hou zhe zhong xing shi de" an le si" ji hu mei tian du zai shang yan zhe 3, 4. ju shuo su ge la di jiu shi fu yong tie shan er si de ju shuo, zhe zhu yao shi gen dang shi de she hui sheng chan li di xia you guan. dang sheng chan li zi liao bu zu yi yang huo suo you de she hui cheng yuan shi, zhe zhong an le si de xi su que shi cong zui da cheng du shang jian qing le she hui fu dan. dan hou lai sui zhe she hui sheng chan li shui ping de ti gao he zong jiao de chu xian, she hui shang ye jian jian di chu xian le fan dui an le si de sheng yin, zai zhe chang zhang da ji ge shi ji de an le si zheng lun sai zhong, hai hao shao shu ren qu de le sheng li. zhe shi yi chang mei you xiao yan de" zhan zheng" jin xian dai she hui zhong, ren men dui yu an le si de zheng yi da gai shi cong 17 shi ji kai shi de. 17 shi ji, ying guo zhe xue jia Francis Bacon ti chu le yi zhong guan dian 5, ta ren wei yi sheng de zhi ze bu ying gai jin jin zhi shi bang zhu bing ren kan bing, er qie hai ying gai yao jin ke neng di jian qing bing ren de teng tong. Francis Bacon sui ran cong zi mian shang kan, Bacon bing mei you ming que di ti chang an le si zhe yi xing wei, dan Bacon dang shi yin yong de lun ju li da bu fen dou shi yong lai zheng ming an le si de zuo fa shi zheng que de 6. jin guan, Bacon de guan dian yin fa le yi xiao bu fen zhi shi fen zi de tao lun, dan bing mei you yin qi yi liao hang ye de guan zhu, ye mei you yin qi da jia de gong ming. er 1870 nian sui zhe yi pian yan jiang gao de heng kong chu shi, zhe yi qie dou fa sheng le gen ben xing de bian hua 7! zhe pian yan jiang gao lai zi yu yi wei bu qi yan de yi sheng, ta jiao Samuel D. Williams. zai zhe ci yan jiang zhong, Williams ti chu le yi ge hen da dan de xin ying guan dian, ji ke yi yong ma zui yao wu ma zui ji zai 19 shi ji de dao le hen da de tui guang lai zhi chi an le si! sui ran Williams de guan dian zao dao le yi sheng he da liang za zhi she de fan dui, dan zai lv zheng jie que de dao le yi chang zhi chi. cong yi sheng de jiao du lai shuo, zhe qi zhong hen da yi bu fen yuan yin shi yin wei ta men zhi ye de te shu xing, shi shi an le si bu jin rong yi mo hei yi sheng de xing xiang, hai hui gei yi sheng chuan shang gui zi shou de" chang pao". suo yi cong yi sheng de jiao du jiang, mei you ren yuan yi zhi chi an le si. bu guo lv zheng jie que hu yu, zhi you bing ren zi ji cai you chu jue zi ji sheng si de quan li, qi ta ren dou mei you gan she de quan li, bao kuo yi sheng. ling wai, 1899 nian de shi hou, mei guo yi yuan Simeon Baldwin ye zeng zai yi ci zong tong yan jiang zhong, wei an le si bian hu. ta sheng cheng, xu duo yi sheng wei le ying de bie ren dui ta men de zun jing, bu xi zeng jia bing ren de tong ku lai yan chang bing ren de sheng ming, zhe dui bing ren lai shuo shi bei can de 8, suo yi yi sheng bu ying gai bo duo bing ren xiang an le si de quan li. jin guan lv shi men de hu yu wei ren men zheng qu an le si de quan li ying de le yi bu fen ren de zhang sheng, dan shi ji shang bing mei you shen me shi zhi shang de jin zhan. zhi dao 1905 nian yi ge nv hai de chu xian, an le si cai suan zai he fa xing shang mai chu le di yi bu. zhe ge nv hai de ming zi jiao Anna Hill, Hill de mu qin shi yi wei ai zheng huan zhe, duo nian lai ji bing de teng tong zao yi shi ta you le an le si de xiang fa, ke shi, zhe zai dang shi, an le si hai bing bu suan shi yi zhong he fa xing de fa gui. suo yi, wei le rang mu qin jin kuai cong tong ku zhong de dao jie tuo, Hill xiang mei guo e hai e zhou ti chu le yi xiang an le si he fa xing de shen qing 9, 10. qing xing de shi, zai Hill de nu li xia, e hai e zhou de yi yuan ju xing le yi ci hui yi tou piao, er hui yi de zhu yao nei rong shi guan yu ru he gei jue zheng huan zhe shi yong yao wu guan li de yi xiang fa an. yi han de shi, zhe xiang fa an zui zhong yi 23 piao dui 79 piao de dao le e hai e zhou yi hui de fou jue. zhe yi wei zhe guan yu an le si he fa xing de di yi ci shen qing shi bai le! nan dao an le si jiu zhe yang bei" da kua" le ma? bu, ta mei you." xiang xun huan chu xian de xiao shu" jin guan zai zhe xiang fa an shi bai yi hou, ying mei liang guo dui an le si de tao lun jian shao le, dan jiu xiang yi wei she lun zuo zhe suo xie de," an le si zhe ge hua ti yong yuan bu hui xiao wang, ta geng xiang shi yi ge xun huan chu xian de xiao shu", dao le 20 shi ji 30 nian dai de shi hou, guan yu an le si de zheng lun you chong xin kai shi le. er zhe yi ci, zai ying guo bi zai mei guo geng jia ji lie! C. Killick Millard yi sheng shi zao qi ti chang qiang zhi jie zhong yi miao he ji hua sheng yu de ren, ta zai ying guo wei sheng guan yuan xie hui fa biao zong tong yan jiang de shi hou ti chu le yi xiang an le si he fa hua de yi an 11, 12. bu jin ru ci, Millard hai fa biao le yi pian xue shu yan jiang, hui gu le yi xia ren men dui yu an le si de li shi tai du. zhe yi ci, Millard de nu li mei you bai fei. yin wei Millard de guan dian zhi jie cu shi ying guo cheng li le di yi ge zi yuan an le si he fa hua wei yuan hui 3 nian hou, zai mei guo ye cheng li le tong yang de wei yuan hui, zhe yi min jian zu zhi de zong zhi jiu zai yu shi an le si he fa hua. sui ran, zhi hou ying mei di an le si xie hui hai ceng qi cao guo neng tuo shan fang zhi fa sheng mou sha qi pian cao zhi guo ji de ti an, dan ta men de ti an dou bei guo jia he di fang li fa ji gou yi yi fou jue le. hao zai, ren men dui yu an le si quan li de zheng qu bing mei you yin ci er ting zhi, yin wei 1969 nian, zai zhi chi zhe de nu li xia, ying guo yi hui zhong yu tong guo le ying guo li shi shang di yi ge shi an le si he fa hua de fa an. huo xu shi shou dao ying guo an le si he fa hua fa an de ying xiang ba, 20 shi ji 80 nian dai chu de shi hou, an le si zhe yi hua ti bu jin cheng wei le xu duo guo jia guang fan de xue shu zheng lun xing hua ti, er qie hai cheng wei le gong zhong zheng lun de jiao dian, te bie shi zai he lan. 1987 nian, zai he lan zhi chi zhe de nu li xia, he lan ye tong guo le yi xiang fa lv tiao wen, ji yun xu yi sheng wei huan you jue zheng de bing ren shi xing an le si. sui ran, mu qian shi jie shang reng you xu duo guo jia mei you tong guo an le si, dan guan yu an le si de zheng lun que shi zhong mei you ting zhi. dan shuo shi hua, xiang bi yu ji ge shi ji qian, xian zai de ren men zai an le si de lun dian shang bing mei you shen me xin de liang dian. pie kai feng ge he cuo ci bu tan, zong jie chu lai ren men zhi chi an le si de lun ju ye jiu na me ji dian: cong tian fu ren quan de jiao du shang jiang, an le si ying gai shi yi xiang yu sheng ju lai de ren quan, mei you ren ke yi ti zi ji zuo zhu, ren men you quan zi ji xuan ze an le si zai zhe, an le si zhu yao shi bang zhu bing ren jie shu teng tong de, suo yi zong de lai shuo shi li da yu bi de ling wai, zhu dong an le si yu fang qi wei chi sheng ming de yi liao gan yu zhi jian ye mei you shen me shi zhi xing de qu bie 13. er bu zhi chi an le si de ren ye da du shi cong liang ge ceng mian lai jiang de. yi shi bing ren de ceng mian, he fa hua de an le si ke neng hui rang you xin ren zuan le kong zi, rang xu duo bu xiang an le si de ren bei an le si, ling wai, zhe ye hui gei bing ren dai lai ju da de ya li er zhu yao shi cong yi xue de ceng mian shang jiang, an le si de he fa hua hen you ke neng hui po huai bing ren dui yi sheng de xin ren, er yi dan gai bian le yi sheng de zhi ze guan nian tong guo an le si he fa hua, gong zhong dui yi liao hang ye de xin xin ye bi jiang hui sang shi, zai shuo, yi xue ye bu shi yi men jing que de ke xue, ji shi shi xian zai wu fa zhi yu de ji bing ye bu neng da bao piao jiang lai bu neng zhi yu. sui ran, guan yu an le si de zheng lun reng zai ji xu, dan bu ke fou ren de shi, yi jing you yue lai yue duo de ren yuan yi xuan ze an le si le, dang ran le, zhe ke bu yi wei zhuo shi shi an le si shi yi jian jian dan de shi qing. shi shi shang, bu guan shi nei ge guo jia de an le si fa lv, bing ren dou de yi bu bu di an zhao shen qing de cheng xu zou ju shuo zhe ge cheng xu hai xiang dang fu za. yi ban lai shuo, an le si de ding yi zai bu tong de guo jia you zhe bu tong de ding yi, zai zhong guo, an le si shi zhi huan bu zhi zhi zheng de bing ren zai chui wei zhuang tai xia, you yu jing shen he qu ti de ji duan tong ku, zai bing ren he qi qin you de yao qiu xia, jing yi sheng ren ke, yong ren dao fang fa shi bing ren zai wu tong ku zhuang tai zhong jie shu sheng ming guo cheng. sui ran, zai zhong guo xiang tong guo li fa de shou duan shi an le si de dao he fa hua hai xu yao hen zhang de lu yao zou, you huo xu zai hen zhang yi duan shi jian nei gen ben bu ke neng. dan Dr. Why zhen xin xi wang, jiang lai you zhe yi tian, zhi shao ke yi ti mian di lai, ye ke yi ti mian di zou! ji ran bu neng zi you di xuan ze sheng, na me zi you di xuan ze si ke hao? Dr. Why hai xiang shuo dui yu zai tong ku zhong zheng zha de ren, jian shao tong ku, ye xu shi yi zhong hao de xuan ze can kao wen xian: 1. Fye W B . Active euthanasia: an historical survey of its conceptual origins and introduction into medical thought. J. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1978, 52 4: 4925022. Frug G E. The City as a Legal Concept M Cities of the Mind. 1984. 3. Amundsen D W. The Physician' s Obligation to Prolong Life: A Medical Duty without Classical Roots J. Hastings Center Report, 1978, 8 4: 2330. 4. Gourevitch D. Suicide among the sick in classical antiquity J. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1969, 43 6: 501. 5. Crossman J, Doshi V. When Not Knowing, is a Virtue: A Business Ethics Perspective J. Journal of Business Ethics, 2015, 131 1: 18. 6. Tibbetts P. Neurobiology and the Homunculus Thesis J. Man amp World, 1995, 28 4: 401413. 7. Williams J R, Lowy F, Sawyer D M. Canadian physicians and euthanasia: 3. Arguments and beliefs J. Cmaj, 1993, 148 10: 16991702. 8. Bach A. Medicolegal congress J. Med Leg J, 1896, 14: 1036. 9. CohenAlmagor R, Hartman M G. The Oregon Death with Dignity Act: review and proposals for improvement. J. Journal of Legislation, 2001, 27 2: 269298. 10. Tolentino A S. Is there a right to die?, A study of the law of euthanasia. J. Philipp Law J, 1974, 49 4: 444461. 11. Millard C K. The legalisation of voluntary euthanasia J. Public Health, 1931, 45 1: 3947. 12. Gamble V N. " There Wasn' t a Lot of Comforts in Those Days:" African Americans, Public Health, and the 1918 Influenza Epidemic J. Public Health Reports, 2010, 125 3: 114122. 13. Emanuel, Ezekiel J . The History of Euthanasia Debates in the United States and Britain J. Annals of Internal Medicine, 1994, 121 10: 793. he Dr. Why yi qi, fa xian yi xue zhi mei ben wen zuo zhe yi xi sheng ming de jin tou, neng fou gei wo yi fen zun yan?

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陳菊的“少年兵”什方陪同賴慶德掃街,他說擔心他已經很久沒有聯系陳菊了。

    民進黨的新趨勢是,高雄“立法者”劉世芳,伴隨著賴青的車隊在街上掃蕩。媒體已經注意到,民進黨的投票始于2020年初選的第10天。賴慶德發起了為期三天的掃街運動,以加強臺灣的車隊。上午,劉世僧侶_蜘蛛資訊網芳離開屏東,經過高雄時,曾被視為陳菊子兵“綠色委員會”的蔡柳秘書長在一次采訪中說,她與陳菊有一段時間沒有聯系,他們幾乎沒有討論黨內初選問題,她會只要候選人到了她的選區,就陪著他們。今天,賴慶德開始清掃屏東的街道,以加強臺灣艦隊。鐘嘉彬、劉世芳、環保委員會、屏東縣鎮長潘孟安、臺南市鎮長大都會_蜘蛛資訊網黃偉哲都來到現場,讓賴慶德非常高興。劉世芳和賴慶德也站在宣傳車上掃街。由于民進黨的公職人員表達了積極的態度,外界把這解釋為一次不對稱的選舉,劉世芳出現在清掃街道的車隊中,是否與陳菊支持蔡英文的立場不同,引發了聯想。作為回應,劉世芳在接受采訪時表示,只要黨內候選人以地方“立法者”的身份前往左營南子選區,他們就會支持和禮貌對待。最近,蔡英英參觀了左營奧運會運動員訓練中心。情婦_蜘蛛資訊網蔡英英陪著她。劉世芳透露,她已經很久沒有聯系陳菊了。”她(陳菊)大概知道我是一個地方輿論代表,選區非常特別,我有一種禮讓感。“他們工作太遠了,陳菊在蔡的英文辦公室,很少有人向立法院報告,所以很少有人討論這些事情(初選)。不管是誰的態度,還是鮮花。母親也是協調小組的成員。我們都尊重她。劉世芳說,黨中央發出的信息是,初選非常接近。現在,不管是誰站在一旁,這并不意味著什么。這取決于候選人本身的特點,他們能否贏得民調是關鍵,因為民調跳出了政黨的階層,意味著非黨員、中間人和白人選民有機會表達自己的立場。劉世芳指出,這次初選不是一個高官,也不是一個偉大的人物,而是一個由人民作出的決定。她承認,抑郁的人越多,他們的感受就越好想告訴你_蜘蛛資訊網不公平,同情的選票就越多;調教初唐_蜘蛛資訊網無論初選是否公平,它在未來仍將繼續發酵。至于賴慶德是如何突破對中部和北部地區的支持的,臺南民主進步黨(民進黨)立法委員葉一金也陪同賴慶德的車隊掃街,她見到走散老伴淚崩_蜘蛛資訊網說她依靠人民和普通民眾的力量。盡管很少有人敢在臺上發表自己的看法,但她仍然認為自己能夠贏得初選,因為選票是平等的,她認為自己不會輸給其他候選人。資料來源:香港中國通訊社

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